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Milani RM, Parrott AC, Schifano F, Turner JJ. 
“Pattern of cannabis use in ecstasy polydrug users: moderate cannabis use may compensate for self-rated aggression and somatic symptoms”. 
Hum Psychopharmacol. 2005 Jun;20(4):249-61.
Cannabis is one of the most common 'co-drugs' for ecstasy users. The aim of the present study was to explore self-reported psychobiological problems in ecstasy polydrug users in relation to their pattern of cannabis use. Two hundred and eighty ecstasy polydrug users were allocated into five cannabis groups according to the frequency of their cannabis use. The control group comprised 121 alcohol-tobacco users. There were no significant group differences with regard to age, diagnosed family psychiatric history and level of self-rated stress experienced during 6 months prior to the study. The present study produced three main

FINDINGS: (a) Ecstasy users with no concomitant use of cannabis displayed more self-rated aggression and somatic symptoms compared with ecstasy users who were smoking cannabis on a monthly or weekly basis. (b) Ecstasy users who reported heavy cannabis use in the past displayed higher paranoid symptoms compared with ecstasy weekly and daily cannabis users. (c) Former heavy cannabis users were the most likely to complain of a variety of ecstasy related long-term problems. In conclusion, moderate cannabis use may help to ameliorate or mask MDMA-induced aggressivity and somatic symptoms. However, this study confirms that heavy cannabis and ecstasy use is associated with several psychobiological problems, which may emerge after a period of abstinence from both drugs.
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