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Zhang P, Cui Z, Liu Y, Wang D, Liu N, Yoshikawa M. 
“Quality evaluation of traditional Chinese drug toad venom from different origins through a simultaneous determination of bufogenins and indole alkaloids by HPLC”. 
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2005 Dec;53(12):1582-6.
A simple and efficient HPLC method has been developed to evaluate the quality of traditional Chinese medicine toad venoms. The major bioactive ingredients, including 10 bufogenins and 4 indole alkaloids in the drug, were separated and quantified on a phenyl-hexyl column with a UV detector. A total of 27 toad venom samples from two species, Bufo bufo gargarizans CANTOR and Bufo melanostictus SCHNEIDER, from the different drug production regions of China, were analyzed. The chromatograms showed significant differences with respect to the samples from different origins. These toad venom samples can be distinctly classified into 4 groups by cluster analysis using the contents of the 14 main constituents, including toad venom samples from B. bufo gargarizans from north China, median China and south China, and samples from B. melanostictus from south China. Toad venom samples from B. bufo gargarizans from median China were considered to be of the highest quality.
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