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Lapierre O, Montplaisir J, Lamarre M, Bedard MA. 
“The effect of gamma-hydroxybutyrate on nocturnal and diurnal sleep of normal subjects: further considerations on REM sleep-triggering mechanisms”. 
Sleep. 1990 Feb 26;13(1):24-30.
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug currently used to treat narcolepsy. The present study documents its effect on sleep organization in healthy subjects. GHB and a placebo were given at bedtime and before a morning nap in a double-blind fashion. GHB administered before nocturnal or diurnal sleep increases stages 3 and 4 and decreases stage 1 non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. In addition, GHB improves REM efficiency at night and reduces wake time after sleep onset when administered before a morning nap recording. GHB also slightly decreases REM latency when administered in the morning, and this effect is correlated with age. Hypotheses regarding mechanisms of action GHB and the involvement of hypothalamic structures in the regulation of REM sleep are discussed.
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