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Fernandez-Calderón F, Lozano OM, Vidal C, Ortega JG, Vergara E, González-Sáiz F, Bilbao I, Caluente M, Cano T, Cid F, Dominguez C, Izquierdo E, Pérez MI. 
“Polysubstance use patterns in underground rave attenders: a cluster analysis”. 
J Drug Educ. 2011;41(2):183-202.
Drug use in mainstream rave parties has been widely documented in a large number of studies. However, not much is known about drug use in underground raves. The purpose of this study is to find out the polysubstance use patterns at underground raves. Two hundred and fifty-two young people between the ages of 18 and 30 who went to underground raves were interviewed. They were given a questionnaire to collect information on drug use at raves. Ravers used a mean of 4.9 different drugs at the last rave they had been to. Over 75% of them used tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and amphetamine, and over half also used powder ecstasy. Two differentiated use patterns were found: one pattern concentrated more on the use of stimulants and the other on the use of hallucinogens. Underground ravers have a "standard" sociodemographic profile. The use of drugs is much higher than equivalent age group. Higher drug use prevalence than in mainstream rave parties is also observed. Different patterns of use appear which will be necessary to consider in designing preventions and risk reduction strategies,
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