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Ayahuasca: alkaloids, plants & analogs
assembled by Keeper of the Trout
Section 3 : Part 2 :
Phalaris : Seasonal Differences

Oram 1970 found great variations of alkaloids between the strains and also between sampling dates. [Samples were taken as the two uppermost (youngest) leaves from 20 sites in each plot.]

He determined that the total tryptamine levels in Seedmaster [DMT is main alkaloid] and Sirocco [5-MeO-DMT is main alkaloid] were approximately 5 times greater in Autumn (April) than in Winter (July and September).

Autumn had higher temperatures, higher light intensities, longer days and more moisture stress.

Oram reported the following (in Australia); the dates of samplings ran from early Feb. through the end of September.

All showed a peak occurring in April. (Seasons are reversed from northern hemisphere)

Sirocco had a lower peak in Feb. and only showed high levels of tryptamines from Feb. through June. June was a month of steady decline in alkaloid levels. At its highest sharp peak it approached 300 mg per 100 grams of dry material. The other samplings during its high phase were less than 200 mg and greater than 100 mg per 100 grams of dry material. After June it remained at less than 50 mg per 100 grams of dry material for the duration of the time frame evaluated (end of Sept.)

Seedmaster rose above 100 mg of tryptamines per 100 grams of dry material twice; once at the beginning of March and once in early April. It showed an additional smaller peak at the beginning of June before dropping to low levels. (It was lower in alkaloid levels than Sirocco at nearly all points. [Sirocco was found, in general, to contain higher total alkaloid levels than Australian Commercial, by Oram]

Rendig and coworkers studied Phalaris tuberosa cv. stenoptera (Hardinggrass: an introduced cultivar from Australia; growing in parts of California.): [published total alkaloid figures for cv. stenoptera run from 0.01 to 0.28% by dry wt.]

Total indole alkaloid levels hit two peaks of 0.14% in late September and mid November one year and one peak in each during two other years. In the latter cases; the year with a peak in late September was also around 0.14% while the year with the peak in mid-November was 0.08%. The latter year showed some of its lowest values in late September. Their analysis only included data from mid September through mid February. Total indolealkylamines were 0.08% or less the rest of the times assayed, with a low around 0.02%. (All values approximate; taken from graphs)
[In northern hemisphere studies, July-early August should be the starting point for such determinations. Especially in the northern US, peaks have been noted during this time.]

As was also reported by Marten et al. 1973) alkaloid levels were markedly different from one month to the next and one year to the next. [Marten also noted a change in alkaloid composition for some clones.]

Barnes et al. 1971) found the lowest concentration was in the first growth.

Highest concentration was in the first regrowth.

Relative amounts of alkaloids remained fairly constant.