Table of Contents
by Murple, Feb 6, 2001
2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 are phenethylamine psychedelics with effects similar to mescaline and 2C-B. The effects of the psychedelic drugs are notoriously difficult to describe. While most produce at least some objectively measurable effects, such as pupil dilation or increased heart rate, the primary effects of the drug are in the mind and are therefore extremely subjective. People who have experienced these drugs agree that the mental changes produced are so far out of the ordinary range of human consciousness that they are impossible to accurately describe. It might be comparable to trying to explain music to a person born deaf.
Psychedelic drugs do not all produce identical effects, but they do generally produce similar effects. Each drug produces different variations on a theme. Not surprisingly, describing the differences between them is nearly as difficult as explaining what these drugs do in the first place. To extend the previous analogy, trying to describe the differences between mescaline and 2C-T-2 to a person who has only used mescaline is something like trying to explain Bach to a person who has only ever heard Miles Davis. Trying to explain these same differences to a person who has never used a psychedelic drug would be as if trying to explain the differences between zydeco and techno to a deaf person.
I will not try to explain the subjective effects of either psychedelics in general or of 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 specifically in great detail. Instead, I have selected quotes from a wide range of first hand reports written by users and collected them as appendices to this paper. I feel that these quotes do a much better job of conveying some picture of the range of effects these drugs can produce than any attempt at reducing them to measurable symptoms could.
This being said, a few generalities can be stated.
2C-T-2 produces effects which develop over the course of one to two hours after oral ingestion, and which last for approximately six to eight hours. When insufflated, the effects develop much faster, over the course of five to thirty minutes, and the effects wear off much sooner, approximately three to four hours after ingestion.
2C-T-7 likewise develops over several hours when used orally, taking up to three hours in some cases to reach full effects. The duration of the experience is much longer than with 2C-T-2, lasting from eight to fifteen hours. Insufflated, the effects come on rapidly, as with 2C-T-2. The trip is also much shorter, lasting from four to eight hours.
Both drugs produce strong visual effects for most people. Qualitatively the visuals are often compared to those produced by mescaline or 2C-B. Among people who have tried both 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7, there is some division as to which of the two produces more powerful visual effects. The visual effects of both are described as being very similar, but not exactly identical. One warning: in the case of 2C-T-7, there have been reports that with extremely high doses, the visual effects can become so strong that it becomes virtually impossible for users to make sense of their surroundings. While this has not been reported in any published 2C-T-2 reports, it seems likely it could happen with the proper dose. This should be taken into account when choosing a setting for taking the drug, and a sober observer is recommended for large dose experiences.
The closed eye imagery produced by these drugs is often described as being stunningly realistic, and often accompanied by a feeling of being physically in the scene. Some users have observed that the closed eye imagery from 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 tends to be more coherent than the imagery from drugs like LSD. Rather than the rapid-fire abstract or symbolic imagery of tryptamines, the images from these phenethylamines tend to form scenes which often have coherent themes or event sequences.
Mentally, many users describe their states of mind as being very lucid. Users with past experiences taking tryptamine psychedelics such as LSD or psilocybin point out this lucidity as being in sharp contrast to their experience with tryptamines. Many users report feeling an unusual emotional openness with themselves and with others, an effect which is often compared with MDMA. Many people describe being able to examine their emotions and their lives with a very objective and detached point of view, which they claim allows them to be honest with themselves and confront things they normally avoid thinking about. Many other typical psychedelic mental effects are reported, including negative ones. Anxiety, paranoia, and full blown panic attacks can occur. Pre-existing negative emotions can be amplified. Extreme feelings of time dilation are commonly reported with both drugs. In general, the mental effects are similar to those of mescaline or 2C-B.
In very high doses, both drugs can cause delirious states in which the user loses touch with reality and may not be aware of their actions. This seems particularly true of 2C-T-7, and there are numerous reports of delirious states, especially when the drug is snorted. There is at least one published report of a delirious state from a large oral dose of 2C-T-2, however.
Physically, 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 produce a range of effects. Some of these are pleasant or neutral, while others are uncomfortable and are therefore labelled as side effects. For a more detailed analysis of the frequency of side effects, refer to the analysis of my user survey results found earlier in this paper, as well as the summaries of the research done by Stolaroff, Wells, and Hardison.
Many people report positive physical sensations, including a warm glowing feeling starting in the chest and spreading out through the body. Reports of dramatically increased limberness are common, particularly with 2C-T-7. Enhancement of all five senses is reported very frequently.
The most commonly reported unpleasant effects of these drugs are nausea and occasionally vomiting. Around sixty percent of survey respondents for both drugs reported nausea, with slightly more 2C-T-7 users reporting nausea than 2C-T-2 users. About twenty-three percent of 2C-T-2 users reported vomiting, as did around thirty percent of 2C-T-7 users. Stolaroff and Wells got better results, with only around thirty-three percent of the 2C-T-2 subjects and thirty-eight percent of the 2C-T-7 subjects reporting nausea, and about eighteen percent of the 2C-T-2 subjects and twenty-five percent of the 2C-T-7 subjects vomiting. Their subjects, regardless of which drug was taken, often mentioned that they felt the nausea was caused by psychological factors. They reported knowing what was making them feel ill, and that the nausea went away once they confronted the issues. Most reports indicate that the nausea usually occurs in the early stages of the experience, that it passes quickly, and that it is generally mild and does not detract significantly from the value of the trip. It can be severe or long lasting in some cases however, particularly with large doses. In addition to nausea and vomiting, other minor digestive discomforts were reported, including diarrhea and gas.
Muscle tension was reported by about a third of 2C-T-2 users and nearly half of 2C-T-7 users, based on both my surveys and the experiments done by Stolaroff and Wells. Often, this tension is focused on the shoulders and neck muscles. In addition, Stolaroff and Wells point out that about thirteen percent of their 2C-T-7 subjects reported muscle spasms or tremors.
2C-T-7 produced headaches for nearly a third of users responding to my user surveys. In contrast, only around ten percent of 2C-T-2 users reported headaches. Many first hand reports from 2C-T-7 users also mention headaches, and users often point out that these headaches tend to occur during the tail end of the trip.
Increased heartbeat and raised blood pressure are common with both drugs, as with virtually all psychedelic drugs. Although much of this is probably due to psychological factors such as anxiety, it is very likely that 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 do have stimulant properties similar to mescaline.
It is crucial to remember that all drugs are capable of producing unexpected results in some percentage of the population. All people have different biochemistries, and there is always the possibility that someone may be allergic to a given drug, or may have some enzymatic peculiarity which causes abnormal metabolism of certain drugs. Anybody considering trying a new drug must take this into account and start with very low doses and work up gradually until they are sure they do not have any unusual response to the drug. As many have said regarding drugs, "your mileage may vary."
Aftereffects of both 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 are typical of psychedelic drugs in general. Aftereffects from both drugs are generally mild, and often are described as positive.
Most commonly reported are feelings of being mentally and physically exhausted. This is not necessarily felt to be bad, and is often described as a lazy but pleasant afterglow rather than a hangover. People report feeling optimistic, euphoric and energized following trips with 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7. In some cases, people report feeling mental sluggishness following use, including impaired memory recall (interestingly, there are several mentions of temporary aphasia, or difficulty in remembering some words when speaking to someone), mild confusion or disorientation, and an inability to concentrate. The mental aftereffects of both drugs are often compared to LSD and especially MDMA, although many users report that the negative aftereffects are much milder than from MDMA.
Headaches, muscle aches, and occasional stomach problems have been reported. In general, these are mild and are easily cured with relaxation and a good revitalizing meal. Other than tiredness, both 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 seem to produce little in the way of physical aftereffects.
The appropriate dosages and routes of administration for 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 are a matter which is open to much discussion. In addition, accurate measurement of doses is an issue of major importance.
Alexander Shulgin recommends a dose of 12 to 25 mg orally for 2C-T-2. The Internet drug archive Erowid lists 5 mg as a threshold dose, 10 to 15 mg as a light dose, 16 to 32 mg as a typical dose, and 32 to 48 mg as a strong dose - all for oral use. Respondents to my 2C-T-2 usage survey used oral doses ranging from 5 to 40 mg, with the average being approximately 20 mg. Some respondents had tried snorting 2C-T-2, with dosages ranging from 2.5 to 35 mg, with the average being approximately 13 mg.
Dosages for 2C-T-7 seem to be much more variable. Shulgin recommends a dosage of 10 to 30 mg orally, adding that "the range is intentionally extended on the lower side to include 10 milligrams, as there have been numerous people who have found 10 or so milligrams to be quite adequate for their tastes." Erowid lists 3 to 5 mg as threshold, 10 to 20 mg as light, 15 to 30 mg as typical, 20 to 50 mg as strong, and 40 to 60 mg as heavy doses for oral use. For insufflation, 1 to 3 mg is given as a threshold dose, 2 to 8 mg as a light dose, 5 to 10 mg as a typical dose, 10 to 15 mg as a strong dose, and 10 to 25 mg as a heavy dose. Respondents to the 2C-T-7 survey indicated a much wider range in dosage. For oral use, dosages ranged from 1 to 125 mg, with approximately 27 mg being average. For insufflation, dosages ranged from 0.5 mg to 50 mg, with the average being approximately 15 mg. Rectal users listed dosages from 7 to 33 mg, with 15 mg being average. Those who smoke 2C-T-7 listed dosages from 1 to 40 mg, with 12 mg being the average. There is little data on dosages used for injections, but three or four reports have appeared on the Internet by people who have tried this route have listed dosages in the range of 1 to 3 mg for both intramuscular and intravenous injections.
Individual sensitivities seem to vary greatly with 2C-T-7, in sharp contrast to 2C-T-2. While some people get powerful effects from 10 mg orally, others report needing to take 60 or even 90 mg orally to get any worthwhile effects.
Regarding routes of administration, there is much debate. Based on both the survey results and on a review of various first hand reports, oral use seems to be the best way to use either drug. People taking them orally report far fewer, milder and shorter side effects than those who snort them. Qualitatively, oral users tend to report much more positive experiences, and those who snort the drugs tend to report far more unpleasant experiences characterized by both physical and mental distress. Advocates of insufflating it often say that they use the drug that way because they require unusually large doses when taken orally, so snorting the drug is done primarily out of economical concerns. The other reasons often given for preferring insufflation over oral use are that the drug hits much faster when snorted and that the trip is shorter (primarily a concern among 2C-T-7 users). Advocates of oral use argue that the trip produced by this route is much gentler on mind and body, more serene, more productive, physically more comfortable, and safer owing both to a much less steep dose-response curve and to a smoother transition into altered consciousness, allowing the user to gradually get accustomed to the new state and preventing panic. One other argument in favor of not insufflating either is that there is the possibility of damaging the nasal passages when snorting these drugs. I personally know a young man who used 2C-T-7 by insufflation a number of times who did enough damage to his nasal passages that he had to go to the hospital and have his nose cauterized after experiencing severe nose bleeds.
There are not enough reports from people using the drugs rectally, by injection or by smoking to draw any really meaningful conclusions. For rectal use and smoking, the level of side effects appears to be in between what oral use and insufflation produce. As for taking them by injection, the few people who have discussed trying this route have not written very positive reports. It seems significant that of the 10 survey respondents who reported trying injections, not one indicated that injection was their preferred route.
Measurement of doses is a topic of very serious concern with both 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7. With the exception of the pressed pills sold in the Netherlands and several black market 2C-T-7 pills, both drugs are available only in the form of pure powder or crystals. Owing to the fact that both drugs are active in doses under 50 mg, this presents difficulties in measuring accurate doses. Optimally, the user should have a scale accurate to 1 mg. Unfortunately, scales this accurate can cost hundreds or even thousands of dollars - far beyond the range of most freelance researchers or recreational users. Because of this situation, various methods have been devised for measuring doses without a scale.
One of the most popular and most accurate is volumetric measurement. In this technique, a known quantity of drug is dissolved in a known volume of liquid; for example, a gram of 2C-T-2 could be dissolved in 200 ml of alcohol. Doses may then be measured out by volume using an eyedropper with milliliter measurements, a graduated cylinder, or even milliliter measuring spoons. Using the previous example, 1ml of 2C-T-7 solution would contain 5 mg of drug. For this method, an alcohol based solution (using vodka or grain alcohol) offers some advantages. First, the alcohol will prevent bacterial contamination. Second, alcohol evaporates easily, so it becomes possible to measure a dose volumetrically and then let it evaporate off to leave an accurately measured dose of powder. Third, anecdotal reports indicate that 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 may be somewhat more soluble in alcohol than in water. If water is used, tap water should be avoided as it contains numerous contaminants which could potentially react with the drugs - for example, chlorine can break down many chemicals. If this method is used, care must be taken to store the solution in an air tight container to prevent evaporation from altering the concentration and throwing off dosage calculations.
Some people have tried to measure doses out visually. This may be as primitive as repeatedly halving a pile into supposedly even parts, or it can be done by what is known as the graph-paper method. For the graph paper method, a sheet of graph paper is placed under a pane of clear glass. A known quantity of powder is then poured onto the glass, and formed into an even sided shape of even thickness. In theory, you will then have an equal ammount of powder covering each square on the paper. For example, if you had 100 mg covering 10 squares, there will be 10 mg over each square. You could then divide this up by aligning a razor with the lines on the paper and separating the drug into 10 piles each approximately containing 10 mg. Unfortunately, visual measurements are not accurate enough to be safe for use with 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7. Even using the graph-paper method, differences in particle density make it impossible to ensure the same ammount of powder is on each square. The act of separating off a portion of the pile with a razor will move the powder remaining in the main pile. Visual methods such as repeated halving or the graph paper technique may be sufficient for drugs with dosages measured in the hundreds of milligrams, but for something as potent as 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7, they are simply unacceptable. A difference of 1 or 2 mg can produce dramatically different results, especially for routes of administration other than oral use. There are numerous reports on the Internet from individuals who have tried visual dose measuring that have learned this the hard way after accidentally taking far larger doses than intended.
Unfortunately, no research has been done to determine the receptor affinities of either 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7. We are forced to examine related drugs and to extrapolate from that data to try and form a hypothesis as to the receptor affinity of these drugs. This is of course made harder by the fact that the mechanisms by which even well studied drugs like mescaline work are still not fully understood.
Mescaline is known to interact with only one subclass of serotonin receptors, known as the 5-HT2 receptors. This is in contrast to tryptamine psychedelics which can interact (both agonistically and antagonistically) with a number of serotonin receptor types. The highest concentration of 5-HT2 receptors is in the cerebral cortex, an area of the brain for which mescaline has been found to have a high affinity.
It is suspected that mescaline's sympathomimetic activity is due to different processes than its psychedelic properties. Some have suggested that mescaline is competitive for adrenergic receptors. There is some evidence that mescaline stimulates or competes for alpha-adrenergic receptors. No evidence has been found for beta-adrenergic receptor interaction. There is some evidence that mescaline may act via catecholamine rather than cholinergic mechanisms. Other studies suggest that mescaline blocks the release of acetylcholine.
Studies done on rat aortas have found that 2C-B is a partial agonist for both 5-HT2 and alpha-1-adrenergic receptors. In concentrations of 10(-6) M it acts as a competitive 5-HT2 antagonist, but acts as a non-competitive antagonist in concentrations of 2.8 x 10(-5) M.
ALEPH-2, the amphetamine homologue of 2C-T-2, has been studied in rats and mice. Based on the animals' performance in a memory and anxiety model known as the elevated T-maze, researchers believe that ALEPH-2 has "anxiolytic, amnestic as well as sedative and/or motor depressant actions." When tested for receptor affinity, it was found that ALEPH-2's affinity "for 5-HT2A/2C receptors ([3H]ketanserin sites) was in the nanomolar range (Ki = 173 nM), whereas for 5-HT1A, benzodiazepine sites, and GABA A receptors, the affinity was micromolar or lower."
Based on this evidence, it seems likely that the psychedelic activity of 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 are due to 5-HT2 receptor interactions, as with mescaline, 2C-B and ALEPH-2. The sympathomimetic properties of these drugs are likely due to agonistic activity at alpha-1-adrenergic receptor sites. Considering the numerous reports of delirium and other anticholinergic-like effects from high doses of 2C-T-7, it seems at least possible that these drugs do have some kind of effect on the acetylcholine system. The receptor affinities of 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 are definitely worthy targets for further study, especially the differences between the two.
No studies have ever been performed on the metabolism of 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7. The metabolism of the related drugs 2C-B and mescaline have been studied however, and based on this it is possible to construct hypothetical metabolic pathways for 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7.
Studies of human volunteers given mescaline have found at least 11 metabolites excreted in urine, as well as mescaline itself, which makes up 60% of the excreted material. Another 30% of the original drug is excreted as 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylacetic acid. Another 5% is excreted as the metabolite N-acetyl-beta-(3,4-dimethoxy-5-hydroxy)-phenethylamine. Several other trace metabolites, including N-acetylmescaline and 3,4-dimethoxy-5-hydroxyphenethylamine, are also excreted.
Studies with animals and in vitro studies have found that mescaline undergoes oxidative deamination. There is some question as to what enzyme does this however, with some researchers suspecting monoamine oxidase, some suspecting diamine oxidase, and some suspecting both may be involved. Enzymatic N-acetylation, as well as O-demthylation of the methoxy groups have also been demonstrated, but these are minor metabolic routes in humans.
The metabolism of 2C-B (2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine) has been studied both by in vitro studies with rat livers and by analyzing urine samples from humans who had used the drug. In addition to some unchanged 2C-B, metabolites included 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenylacetic acid, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromobenzoic acid, and 2-methoxy-5-hydroxy-4-bromophenethylamine. By comparing this data to what is known about mescaline metabolism, it seems likely that 2C-B follows a similar metabolic pathway.
Extrapolating from this, it seems likely that much 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 may be excreted unchanged, with oxidative deamination being the main metabolic pathway for the remainder. This would produce 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylthiophenylacetic acid in the case of 2C-T-2, and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-propylthiophenylacetic acid in the case of 2C-T-7. Some of the drugs are also likely metabolized by other pathways such as O-demethylation or N-acetylation. One direction for future research which may prove interesting is to compare the metabolism of 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7. There seems to be much wider range of responses to 2C-T-7 than for 2C-T-2, as was discussed under dosage considerations. This may be indicative of some difference in the metabolism of the two drugs.
There are mixed reports regarding the tolerance forming properties of 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7. While some people have noticed a definite tolerance, a couple users have reported being able to use 2C-T-7 for several days in a row without any noticeable decrease in effects. One user reported taking low doses of 2C-T-7 daily for several months as a cognitive enhancer, saying that there was no noticeable tolerance. Studies done with mescaline show that tolerance develops after two to three days of daily use, and that it disappears within three to four days of the last dose. Likewise, tolerance to 2C-B has been reported if the drug is used frequently.
Cross-tolerance with other drugs has not been explored deeply. One respondent to the 2C-T-7 usage survey remarked that a 25 mg dose of 2C-T-7 taken on the night of a day in which psilocybin had been taken. The respondent felt there was a strong cross-tolerance effect at work. Another survey respondent noted that a 27 mg dose of 2C-T-7 taken thirty-six hours after a 20 mg dose of 2C-T-2 produced no effect, indicating that there is a cross tolerance between the two.
Beyond this, we can try to extrapolate from related drugs. Mescaline has been found to produce cross-tolerance with tryptamines such as psilocybin and LSD. Mescaline also appears to be cross-tolerant with the inactive chemical 2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine and the stimulant N,N-dimethylmescaline. It seems likely that cross-tolerance exists between closely related phenethylamines such as 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, 2C-B and mescaline as well.
Sadly, the limited knowledge about how 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 work makes it impossible to say for certain what the risk factors for these drugs are. We can apply a few standard contraindications for this class of drug, and it is possible to make some educated guesses about potential risks based on published experience reports and by extrapolation from related drugs. The possibility of yet unknown risk factors can not be ruled out however, and anyone considering experimenting with these drugs must keep in mind that they are sailing in largely uncharted waters.
One contraindication can be given with absolute certainty: Women who are (or suspect they may be) pregnant and nursing women should avoid all drugs not prescribed by a doctor. This applies especially to 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7, which are after all still experimental psychedelics. There are absolutely no justifiable reasons for taking such a drug when you are physiologically supporting another life. Although there have been no studies on what the risks of taking these drugs while pregnant, there have been some studies done with the related drug mescaline on human tissues in vitro. Mescaline has been found to inhibit cellular mitosis by inhibiting spindle apparatus formation in a manner similar to colchicine and colcemid, which could conceivably slow the growth of a developing embryo or fetus. It should be pointed out that studies done on the Huichol tribes of Mexico have found no significant chromosomal abnormalities among the peyote users versus the non-users, indicating that mescaline does not share the mutagenic properties of colchicine and colcemid. Mescaline has also been found to constrict blood vessels in the human placenta in a manner similar to serotonin. In lower doses, mescaline has been found to enhance serotonin-induced uterine contractions, and causes uterine contractions on its own in higher doses. Although pregnant women and children among the Huichol have routinely used peyote with no demonstrable negative health effects, it is wise to err on the side of caution and avoid all drugs during pregnancy unless there is a medical need. Also, while mescaline may be closely related to 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7, they are different drugs and what applies to one does not necessarily apply to the others.
Various standard psychedelic contraindications also certainly apply. People who have a personal or family history of psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder should not use psychedelic drugs unless doing so in a therapeutic setting under the supervision of a trained psychologist or psychiatrist. These drugs can weaken reality boundaries, and could easily lead to a psychotic break or worsen an already existing psychotic state. Similarly, people with personality disorders such as multiple personalities should also avoid taking these drugs except in therapeutic settings, as psychedelics can dramatically damage ego boundaries. Individuals with various emotional disorders as well as people going through temporary emotional crises should exersise caution with psychedelic drugs. While these drugs can provide valuable insights and emotional healing, they can also drastically worsen negative emotions. It may be wise for such people to make use of a guide for the experience, whether that be a psychologist, a spiritual advisor, or simply a trusted friend who can help direct the experience into a process of release and healing. For people who have little or no prior experience with psychedelics, the presence of a guide should be considered mandatory. Even individuals who are experienced with psychedelics may wish to make use of a guide for their first time out with 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7 if their prior experiences have all been with tryptamine class drugs such as LSD or psilocybin rather than with phenethylamine class drugs, as the two families of drugs can produce very different results.
Beyond pregnancy, nursing and psychological factors, we must venture into the realm of the hypothetical. These contraindications and warnings are based on review of first hand reports from 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7 users and on extrapolation from research on mescaline. While this may be overcautious in some cases, it must be remembered that no formal scientific studies have ever been done on 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7, so extreme caution is wise.
People who have a personal or family history of seizures or convulsions should avoid 2C-T-2 and especially 2C-T-7. Quite a few first hand experience reports mention various effects such as muscular twitches and tremors, and a small percentage of users responding to my 2C-T-7 survey mentioned such symptoms. Several of the people reporting tremors stated that they seemed to originate in the legs and move upward. Several studies have found that mescaline can produce mild tremors in normal dosages. In higher dosages, these can become quite strong. A 1957 study by Pierre Deniker using 10 mg/kg doses of intravenous mescaline hydrochloride found that such doses can produce rather severe tremors, but that the tremors seem to be partially under voluntary control and cease spontaneously several hours later. Chlorpromazine was found to eliminate these tremors. Studies on dogs and monkeys have found that mescaline can produce tremors as well as clonic and tonic convulsions in high doses. Although apparently harmless in healthy people, it is possible that these effects might trigger a more serious incident in people who have a convulsive disorder such as epilepsy. Again, it also can not be taken for granted that the convulsive actions of 2C-T-7 are caused by the same mechanisms as the actions of mescaline - this is purely based on extrapolation. Interestingly, mention of tremors or convulsions are conspicuously absent from the reports by 2C-T-2 users. It is unknown whether this is because nobody is experiencing these effects or simply because they are not mentioning them.
There have been three reported incidents involving convulsive symptoms from 2C-T-7 which are serious enough to cause concern, all of which were described in detail in the historical section of this paper. Of greatest concern is the death of Jake Duroy. Around ninety minutes after snorting a massive 35 mg dose of 2C-T-7, Mr. Duroy began to have convulsions while simultaneously vomiting and bleeding from the nose. He soon went into cardiac arrest and died on the way to the hospital. An autopsy ruled the cause of death to be choking due to aspiration of vomit. While convulsions are a normal symptom of choking, there is also the possibility that the death was caused by an overdose of the drug itself. In studies on rats, fatal doses (LD50 = 370 mg/kg intraperitoneally) of mescaline cause flexor convulsions after a period of hyperactivity, followed by respiratory arrest and cardiac arrest a few minutes later. If Mr. Duroy's death was in fact due to an overdose rather than simply choking, then this would seem to indicate that either 2C-T-7 has a dramatically lower LD50 than mescaline or that Mr. Duroy had an extreme sensitivity to the drug. The significance of the two other incidents mentioned is more problematic, as both involved head injuries. In one of the cases, the convulsions were accompanied by an apparent mild heart attack. This patient had a childhood history of abnormal heartbeat.
This leads us to the next contraindication. 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7, like any other psychedelic drugs, should not be taken by individuals with cardiovascular problems. Tachycardia was reported by 16.28% of 2C-T-2 users and by 21.75% of 2C-T-7 users responding to my surveys. One person with premature ventricular contractions had an unusual episode which may have some connection using 2C-T-7. It is likely that this situation is connected to use of beta-blocker drugs, so it is summarized further on in the section on drug interactions. Hypertension was reported by 2.33% of 2C-T-2 users and 5.91% of 2C-T-7 users, although these numbers are probably insignificant since its unlikely many people had access to blood pressure monitors during their trips. Headaches were reported by 9.3% of 2C-T-2 users and by 31.91% of 2C-T-7 users, and it is possible that this is indicative of raised blood pressure, although dehydration and other factors could also account for the headaches. Turning once again to a related drug, mescaline has been found to increase blood pressure. Mescaline may increase heart rate, but can also decrease heart rate in higher doses. Mescaline can cause heart palpitations, and one 2C-T-7 survey respondent did mention having heart palpitations as well. Mescaline has also been found to be a vasoconstrictor in higher doses.
One final caution is based entirely on extrapolation from mescaline. Mescaline has been shown to affect blood sugar levels. One study involved large intravenous doses (10 mg/ml), and resulted in an average increase in blood sugar of 35.1%, reaching a maximum at around one hour after injection and returning to normal in two to four hours. Interestingly, a study performed on rats using much higher doses (30 to 100 mg/kg) found that mescaline sharply lowered blood sugar levels. The rat study also found evidence that insulin lowered the LD50 of mescaline. While these doses involve unusually high doses of a different drug, diabetics may wish to pay extra attention to their blood sugar levels when using 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7. There was one 2C-T-7 survey respondent who mentioned having insulin dependent diabetes, and he reported no problems.
Drug interactions are always a complex issue, as the actions of each drug combine with each other and with the biochemical idiosyncrasies of the user. The results can be unpredictable, and with every drug added to the mix, the unpredictability of the results increases. In the cases of 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7, this is complicated even further by the fact that their pharmacologies are still largely theoretical. Based on reports from users and extrapolation from closely related drugs, a few observations can be made as to how 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 may interact with other drugs.
A broad range of drugs have been combined with these two phenethylamines. In many cases, particularly with non-psychoactive medical drugs, the users have not reported any unusual reactions. There are many reports of combinations with other psychedelic drugs, where the results have been synergistic as one would expect. Combinations with other psychoactive drugs have been largely predictable; for example, combining 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7 with benzodiazepines or GHB produced anxiolytic and sedating effects. To summarize all the nuances of these interactions could easily be a paper on its own, and so I will summarize here only those interactions which are unusual or dangerous.
The beta-blocker drugs metoprolol and atenolol were both involved in an unusual reaction reported by an individual taking them for premature ventricular contractions. This person first took a dose of metoprolol to deal with some PVCs he had been having. Later, after the drug had reduced the PVCs to a negligible level, he snorted 6 mg of 2C-T-7. Within 10 minutes the 2C-T-7 reached peak effects, and simultaneously he began experiencing more PVCs than he had ever had in his life. Concerned, he took a sublingual dose of metoprolol, which produced no apparent reduction in the PVCs. The next day, he was still having an unusually high level of PVCs, so he began taking atenolol. This proved no more effective than the metoprolol had been. The PVCs got progressively worse over the course of a week, reaching a point where every other heartbeat was a PVC. He became lightheaded and short of breath, almost passing out at times. This obviously greatly distressed him. He even consulted his doctor, who had him wear a halter monitor to record his EKG readings for a day. After a week since the episode began, he realized that the more atenolol he took, the worse the PVCs became. He stopped taking the atenolol and felt "80% better" within two days. Within three weeks the PVCs were almost entirely gone, and did not recur for at least two months. The significance of this and whether or not the 2C-T-7 played any role are open to speculation. Another beta-blocker, bisoprolol, was used by a 2C-T-7 survey respondent with no unusual reactions reported.
One person reported that the anticonvulsant drug gabapentin (Neurontin) seemed to delay the onset of 2C-T-7's effects.
Stimulants of various kinds seem to be potentiated by 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7. Caffeine has been reported to produce noticeably strong stimulant effects when combined with 2C-T-7. Several people have reported using cocaine with 2C-T-7, with some saying that the combination produces strong stimulation, and others mentioning a powerful euphoria. Combinations of 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7 with amphetamines have been reported, with some people indicating the mix was not recommended but without going into details as to the actual effects. Benzylpiperazine, interestingly, has been reported to reduce the physical side effects of both 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 by several individuals. One person, however, reported that combining 150 mg of benzylpiperazine with 1.5 mg 2C-T-7 (route was not specified, but presumably was insufflated) produced a frightening tachycardia, with a pulse of over 160.
Reports of combinations with dextromethorphan are mixed. Some users have reported extreme delusional states from this combination. Combinations of 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 with ketamine, which has some pharmacological similarities to dextromethorphan, seems to have the opposite result. People who have tried combining ketamine with 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7, as well as the related 2C-B, report that they find it easier to remember and integrate the experience than when the ketamine taken alone.
Opiates of various kinds have been combined with both 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7. While in most cases the results were neutral or positive, there are at least two reports where combining oxycodone with 2C-T-7 produced significant nausea.
The prescription sleep aids zaleplon (Sonata) and zolpidem (Ambien) were each reported by single individuals to produce intensifications of 2C-T-7's visual effects.
One person reported that the tetracyclic antidepressant mirtazapine (Remeron) made him more sensitive to the effects of 2C-T-7.
It is often mentioned that combining phenethylamines such as 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 with MAO inhibitors. This is most likely an overcautious statement made out of an incomplete understanding of MAO inhibitors. There are two kinds of monoamine oxidase, MAO A and MAO B. Some MAO inhibitors are non-specific, inhibiting both kinds of MAO. Others are selective for either one or the other MAO enzyme. Secondly, MAO inhibitors can be either reversible or irreversible. The irreversible inhibitors work by chemically bonding to the enzyme, permanently destroying it and making it necessary for the body to synthesize new MAO - a process which can take weeks. Reversible MAO inhibitors do not destroy MAO, but only temporarily bind to it, producing an effect which wears off after a few hours. Not all MAO inhibitors are created equal, and they carry different levels of risk. Even chocolate contains weak MAO inhibiting chemicals. Taking this into consideration, it seems that some MAO inhibitors may be safe with 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7.
In fact, there is only one case of an adverse reaction from combining psychedelic phenethylamines in the scientific literature. In this incident, a person took the prescription irreversible, non-specific MAOI Nardil an hour after taking a dose of MDMA. Three and a half hours later, the person was admitted to an emergency room. At some point prior to visiting the emergency room, the person drank an unspecified amount of alcohol (having a blood alcohol level of 14 mg per deciliter at the time of admission). Combining alcohol with Nardil is itself very dangerous. Doctors gave the patient Benadryl in an attempt to reduce symptoms of tonicity, but the treatment was ineffective. In the hospital, the patient was given care which was primarily of a supportive nature. Three hours after admission, the patient made a complete recovery.
While much of the fear of combining MAO inhibitors with phenethylamines is probably unfounded, there undoubtedly are risks. As the metabolic pathways of 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 are not really known, it is impossible to know how inhibition of MAO will affect the way the body handles these drugs.
There have been two reports of combining 2C-T-7 with the MAO inhibitor deprenyl. Deprenyl is a reversible inhibitor of MAO B. The first report was posted to an Internet drug form by an individual who did not specify the doses taken of either drug, but who said that the experience lasted seventy-two hours, describing it as "tough, bearable and non-repeatable." The other is from Alexander Shulgin, who in a private discussion with me reported finding a man at the Entheobotany 2000 conference in Palenque, Mexico, who "was twitching on the grass, with severe motor problems, and who was in a state of obvious physical toxicity." After speaking with the man, it was discovered that he had combined five Blue Mystic tablets (for a total of 37.5 mg of 2C-T-7) with several deprenyl pills. Shulgin suspects that deprenyl could block the metabolism of 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7.
There have been no other reports of combining 2C-T-2 or 2C-T-7 with MAO inhibitors, but if we examine related drugs it may be possible to draw some conclusions. The natural alkaloids harmine and harmaline, found in the ayahuasca vine and in Syrian rue seeds, are both reversible inhibitors of MAO A. Both have been combined by quite a few people with mescaline, producing potentiation. No adverse reactions have been documented. The synthetic chemical moclobemide, also a reversible MAO A inhibitor, has been combined by some people with both 2C-B and MDMA. Again, there were no negative reactions.
Piracetam has been found to potentiate the effects of mescaline. However, one person reported trying piracetam as a potentiator for 2C-T-7 and found it produced no noticeable enhancement of effects.
Chlorpromazine (Thorazine) and other phenothiazines have been found to inhibit the effects of mescaline. Not only do they inhibit mescaline's mental effects, but animal experiments have found that they offer highly effective protection against normally fatal overdoses of mescaline. The effects of mescaline can also be reversed or blocked by low doses of the 5-HT2 antagonists ritanserin and Spiperdone administered intravenously, and the drug meretran may also inhibit mescaline's mental effects. It is very likely that these drugs would similarly inhibit or reverse the effects of both 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7. Chlorpromazine in particular seems promising for investigation as a possible emergency room treatment, especially in cases where physical toxicity is present.
As mentioned under the section on contraindications and warnings, there is some evidence that insulin may lower the LD50 of mescaline. However, the doses used in this study (5 to 10 units per kilogram of body weight) were many times more than doses used by diabetics. It is likely such a dose would induce insulin shock, and would therefore be toxic regardless of any other drugs taken. While this is most likely irrelevant to 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-7 users, it may be something for researchers to investigate in the future.
In no way can this brief summary be considered conclusive. The reactions described could be abnormal, or due to factors not apparent from the documentation available. More importantly, the fact that nobody has had any unusual reactions to any given drug combination does not guarantee that it is a safe mix. Every person has a unique biochemistry, and even with the most researched and best understood drugs, the possibility of an unpredictable idiosyncratic reaction remains a real risk. Whenever trying out a new drug combination, it is recommended that you start with much lower doses of each drug than you would normally use.